Symbols & Abbreviations


[ ] Brackets around dates indicate an incomplete file. Brackets around a title indicate a successor title for which no issues are held.

* First issue at that place, with that frequency, or under that title. In a few instances, preliminary issues preceded Volume I, No. 1; in others, the paper was suspended or moved away, then resumed.

X Last issue at that place, with that frequency, or under that title. In some cases, extras were issued after the end of regular publication.

= Changed to, or merged into, another frequency or title.

+ File continues to date and is being currently received.

? In a list of missing issues, indicates that a regular publication date was missing, but numbering was consecutive (or fewer numbers than dates were missing). Following X in the main listing indicates that this was in all probability the final issue, but it is not certain.


Ch, Cherokee 
Cr, Croatian 
Cz, Czech 
D, Danish 
F, French 
Fl, Flemish 
G, German
Gr, Greek 
It, Italian 
J, Japanese 
N, Norwegian 
P, Polish 
R, Russian 
S, Swedish 
SI, Slovenian 
Sp, Spanish 
Y, Yiddish 
E (for English) is used only where necessary for clarity.


bm bimonthly
bw biweekly
d daily
i irregular
m monthly
q quarterly
qw four times a week
sm semimonthly
sw semiweekly
tw triweekly
w weekly
Unless otherwise noted newspapers listed are weeklies.


Ja January
F February
Mr March
Ap April
My May
Je June
Jl July
Ag August
S September
O October
N November
D December

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